“Social movements are constant and permanent struggles, which do not take the holding of the state apparatus or means of production as their ultimate goal.” (Chen, 1992)
“People inside Anheuser-Busch say a takeover of the St. Louis brewer by Belgium’s InBev is possible — though the company has not commented on a possible deal. Talk of the company’s takeover has people in St. Louis on edge. The brewer is part of the city’s identity, and not just as a major employer.” (“Anheuser-Busch Takeover Talk Shakes St. Louis : NPR,” n.d.)
“At the height of the global financial crisis two years ago, world leaders braced for a trade war. Governments were desperate to save jobs and protect their industries from foreign competition. In the end, they mostly avoided protectionism. Now, there is a new danger. When finance ministers gather in Washington later this week, they will talk about how to avert a currency war.” (“NPR Media Player,” n.d.)
Antonella Ceccagno describes one scenario in Italy that revolved around a relationship with China. “The crisis affecting Chinese wholesale and retail importers has principally been caused by the Italian government’s intent to contain imported goods from China that are perceived to be in direct competition with Made in Italy products produced in Italy. As a result, regulations to limit the economic activities of the Chinese [were] implemented by the Italian government.” (Thunø, 2007)
“Belgium has been without a government for nearly four months” (“Belgium’s beer sellers see trouble brewing,” 2010)
“Governments around the world are disappointed their economies are recovering so slowly. And, they are seeking new ways to boost growth. One option is to devalue their currencies. With their products priced more cheaply in the world market, they get an edge over their competitors but sometimes the competitors just follow suit. The United States blames China for its low exchange rate, but Japan, Switzerland, South Korea, Taiwan, and Brazil have all taken steps recently to cheapen their currencies. When everyone devalues, the result is a currency war.” (“NPR Media Player,” n.d.)
Belgium has disintegrated due to a lack of cooperation in its government.
“co-operation among the political parties elected to run [Belgian's] regional affairs has seemingly broken down” (“Belgium’s beer sellers see trouble brewing,” 2010)
When global leaders see the unfortunate results of a cooperation vacuum, they seek to reestablish an approach of working together.
At the World Bank fall meetings, finance ministers will be urged [by the IMF through the US officials' call for discipline] to cooperate, rather than compete, on the currency front. (“NPR Media Player,” n.d.)
Example of a cooperative currency:
“The euro… was a political rather than economic creation — the result of Europeans’ fear of resurgent German nationalism and Germans’ obsessive fear of inflation.” (“A Fitful Dream: European Unity Shaken By New Woes : NPR,” n.d.)
“Unlike its politicians, Belgium’s beer makers and sellers share a common goal. Most take the view that splitting the country into ‘Walloon’ and ‘Flemish’ sectors would be a disaster for sales in a globalised beer market.” (“Belgium’s beer sellers see trouble brewing,” 2010)
Belgian statesman Jean-Luc Dehaene believes “Citizens experience the global world as a threat. They are afraid of all the changes that are in the global society. They feel very insecure and go back to their own cocoon. You see some nationalism coming up again in different member states.” (“A Fitful Dream: European Unity Shaken By New Woes : NPR,” n.d.)
“The schools are still open and the trains still run on time.” (“Could Belgium cease to exist?,” 2010)
“Talks are deadlocked over how spending should be split between national and regional levels of government.” (“Could Belgium cease to exist?,” 2010)
Search For New European Identity (“A Fitful Dream: European Unity Shaken By New Woes : NPR,” n.d.)
- “Even though I am European, I could not accept a European government without a national government,” says Brigitte Bay, who is Danish.
- Jakup Johanik comes from Prague, Czech Republic: “I am really proud that first I am Czech, and second that I am European.”
- Gavin Todd-James is from London: “I probably call myself British, rather than European, but it has certainly opened me up to the idea that I am part of something wider.”
- It’s that “something wider” that has ensured the longest period of peace and economic growth in European history — and that is now in search of a new identity.
“During the 20 years of presence of new Chinese migrants in Italy, the widespread popular opinion in Italy has been that Chinese businesses engage in ‘unfair competitive practices’ that take away work from Italians… Sentiments similar to those widespread in Italy have recently also emerged in Spain.” (Thunø, 2007)
“Even those who want things to stay the way they’ve been for more than a century know that the force of globalization could overwhelm even the proud tradition of the local brewing giant.” (“Anheuser-Busch Takeover Talk Shakes St. Louis : NPR,” n.d.)
One stance is that “…relentless images and experiences… may, in the short run, promote protectionism and ethnic nationalism, but in the longer run a collective survival ethic will be necessary to preserve human life on this planet” (McMichael, 2007)
“At present, world debate pivots on the adequacy of the market as a guardian of social and environmental sustainability. But this is a prelude to a broader historical set of questions concerning the scale of human community and governance, as well as the basic contradiction between material affluence and survival of the species. Development, once identified as ‘high mass consumption’ within a framework of rule, has the opportunity now to adopt an ethical dimension, within a framework of necessity.” (McMichael, 2007)
“Americans drink a lot of beer during the summer. But beer drinking habits are changing. People are drinking less and drinking differently.” (“Changing Tastes Drive Shift In Beer Sales : NPR,” n.d.)
“When The New York Times published a ranking of Belgian-style beer — based on a blind taste test — the top spot went to a golden ale from a small brewery in Michigan.” (“For The Best Belgian Beer, Go To … Michigan? : NPR,” n.d.)
“The case of Italy poses questions of restriction and protection policies vis-a-vis fundamental changes that are taking place as a result of globalization.” (Thunø, 2007)
“As an effect of globalization, markets need to become more and more international. To reach the end users, products need to be sold and distributed across borders, and thus exports—and possible export barriers—are of greatest importance for firms that are active in the international market.” (Korneliussen & Blasius, 2008)
Ceccagno explains how certain Chinese wholesale and retail importers have been perceived and exaggerated by the Italian media as “unfair competition” and argues that “Chinese businesses are beneficial to the national garment industry (and most probably to the other productive sectors where they have entered). In the last 15 years, Chinese contracting garment workshops have made it possible for Made in Italy products to continue to be competitive.” (Thunø, 2007)
Shoham & Albaum, two professors of marketing, have explained the importance of barriers on exporting. “Firms that consider internationalization should not await governmental programs to reduce the impact of export barriers. They should take a proactive approach and plan to reduce the impact internally. Firms should be market-driven rather than internally driven. For example, firms should be market-driven in new product development, thereby reducing the risk that such products will not be acceptable outside of the local market.” (Shoham & Albaum, 1995)